Olen hahmotellut viime aikoina mm. yleisurheilun kehityskulkuja. Tässä yksi kuvaava tapa.
Nuo rakentavat monenlaisia mielenkiintoisia kehityskulkuja urheiluhistoriasta. Otin tuohon näytille nyt yhden kestävyys, yhden voima/taito ja yhden voima/nopeuslajin. Vaikka toki kaikissa tarvitaan kaikkea.. Kuulassa ja pituudessa on kehitys jo aika hiljaista, kun ei tuota evoluutiota tapahdu aivan hetkessä..
Pari vuotta sitten tuli ihan mielenkiintoinen tutkimus ulos inhimillisen suorituskyvyn rajoista.
Among T&F events, 63.9% no longer progress (77.8% of the 18 women events; 50% of the 18 men events). The average year for the detected dates of halt in performance is 1992.8±7.9 (1991.8±8.0 for women; 1994.8±7.9 for men). Dates of halt range from 1980.9 (1500m women) to 2007.1 (triple jump men, Table S1)."
Procedures for unexpected, out-of-competition anti-doping controls were officially approved one year later and 1988 can be considered as the T&F golden year of exceptional marks, which subsequently resulted in a large stagnation in the women's events."
"The observed discrepancy between athletes of different countries may be related to training protocols improvements. Russian training loads were increased three fold between 1968 and 1998, in speed and strength sports . Most countries have followed such a trend in training protocols and volumes. Between 1950 and 1990, East European countries such as the GDR were involved in doping protocols  and may be responsible for many performances by undetected doped athletes –. As a more recent example, recombinant erythropoietin (EPO) was marketed in 1989 and the International Olympic Committee prohibited its use in sports in 1990 , . Several studies quantified EPO's effect on performance by measuring maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and showed a 6.3 to 6.9% increase , . The introduction of out-of-competition controls in 1988 may have led to a reduction of drugs use among athletes. The later introduction of World Doping Anti-Agency (WADA) in 1999 has led to the harmonization of rules and regulations governing the anti-doping struggle in 2004. These recent efforts in the fight against doping may have had an effect on the proportion of doped athletes in competition. This may have been the case in T&F where we see a general decline of performance after 1988 except in middle and long distance running races . The same effect is observable in cycling . In the present study, we cannot quantify the proportion of doped athletes so far. However, the analysis of this proportion among BP, using available lists from official sources ,  might allow an estimation of the ratio of physiological vs.pharmacologically enhanced performances."
"Present performances may now be enhanced through extremely exceptional individuals at the frontier of our genomic condition or with the artificial help of technology."
"The limitation of artificial enhancements may drive performances back down to the physiological frontiers, which in turn depend upon growing economical or environmental constraints."
Athlete Atypicity on the Edge of Human Achievement: Performances Stagnate after the Last Peak, in 1988.
Berthelot et al.
Millä rajoilla kulkevat suomalaiset yleisurheilijat..?
Ps.Saattavat sisältää näpyttelyvirheitä..